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LOUIS ARMSTRONG HOUSE AND ARCHIVES:<br>"Satchmo's Online Webliography compiled by David Kay"

Welcome to Ol' Satchmo's Online Webliography:

An Introductory to Reference Sources on Louis Armstrong

SCOPE: This webliography is devoted to helping people of all ages and backgrounds learn more about the life and times, myths and facts, and stories and music of the virtuoso trumpet player Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong. The reference sources listed below are found online, offline and throughout the world in audio, video, film, written, spoken and visual formats. This site should be of interest to anyone interested in jazz, popular and swing music, American culture, and the Civil Rights movement of the 20th century.

In addition to being a great jazz musician and entertainer, Louis Armstrong was also constantly archiving his collection of recordings and memorabilia, telling stories, writing letters and essays, making music, creating cut-out collages and collecting cultural artifacts. He toured regularly spreading his happy music and and his laughter across the country and throughout the world. He was the subject of many biographies and documentary films, but he was also interested in speaking and writing in his own inimitable way.

In 1943, Louis and his fourth wife, Lucille, bought a small house in a working-class neighborhood of Queens, NY. This was the house that Armstrong lived in for almost half his life. Recently the House has been restored to its 1960s-style glamour and, 32 years after his death in 1971, The Louis Armstrong House, opened to the public as a museum. This webliography can be used as an introduction to the world, life, and legacy of Louis Armstrong, the man who was America's Jazz Ambassador.

Top of Page

  • The Myth:
    Daniel Louis Armstrong: b. July 4, 1900, New Orleans, LA * d. July 6, 1971, NYC, NY
  • The Truth:
    Louis Armstrong: b. August 4, 1901 in New Orleans, LA * d. July 6, 1971, Queens, NY

    Subject Headings
    ARMSTRONG LOUIS 1900-1971
    ARMSTRONG LOUIS 1901-1971

    Nicknames: Satchelmouth, Satchmo, Little Louis, Dippermouth, Boat Nose, Musicmouth, Hammock Face, Rhythm Jaws, Gatemouth, The World's Greatest Trumpet Player, Pops, The King of Jazz, King of the Zulus, America's Good Will Ambassador, America's Jazz Ambassador, Ol' Satchmo, Ol' Satch, Uncle Satch, Reverend Satchelmouth, Ambassador Satch

    : Mary Ann Albert "Mayann" Armstrong (1885-1927);
    Father: William "Willie" Armstrong (1875-1933);
    Raised by Grandmother, Mrs. Josephine Armstrong until 1906;
    Sister: Beatrice "Mama Lucy" Armstrong (1903-1985);
    Two half-brothers: Henry and William "Willie" Jr.

    Married four times:
  • Daisy Parker (1897-1972): Married in 1918, divorced in 1922;
  • Lillian "Lil" Hardin (1898-1971): Married in 1924, separated in 1931, divorced in 1938;
  • Alpha Smith (1907-1943): Married in 1938, divorced in 1942;
  • Lucille Wilson (1914-1983): Married in 1942; Moved to Louis Armstrong House in Queens until his death in 1971.

  • No children; One adopted son: Clarence Myles Hatfield Armstrong (1915-1998).

    A Basic Louis Armstrong Time Line: 1901-1971 courtesy of Verve Music Group. http://www.vervemusicgroup.com/artist.aspx?aid=2679 (July 29, 2004).

  • Brief Overview
    The Library of Congress. "America's Story from America's Library." http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/progress/louis_1 (July 20, 2004).
    Satchmo.net. "Armstrong Biography." http://www.satchmo.net/bio/ (July 20, 2004).
    Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery. "Louis Armstrong: A Cultural Legacy." http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/armstrong/ (July 20, 2004).

  • Louis Armstrong Bands, Personnel and Discography
    In almost 50 years of recordings, Armstrong played with hundreds of musicians.

    Brooks, Edward. The Young Louis Armstrong on Records: A Critical Survey of the Early Recordings (1923-1928). Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2002.
    Jepsen, Jorgen Grunnet. A Discography of Louis Armstrong, 1923-1971. Copenhagen: Knudsen, 1973.
    The Louis Armstrong Discography. "Celebrating a Century of Satch: 1901-2001." http://www.satchography.com/ (July 28, 2004).
    Red Hot Jazz. "Louis (Satchmo) Armstrong (1901-1971)". http://redhotjazz.com/louie.html (July 28, 2004).
    Starrex, A.V. "An Adventure in Discography: Louis Armstrong Discoveries." Coda 249 (May-June 1993), pp. 32-33.
    Thiele, Bob and Bob Golden. What a Wonderful World: A Lifetime of Recordings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    Westerbeg, Hans. Boy from New Orleans: A Discography of Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong. Copenhagen: JazzMedia, 1981.

  • Filmography:
    Documentaries, Animated Shorts, Hollywood Features, Soundies and More.

    Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattos, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. New York: Viking Press, 1992.
    Internet Movie Database (IMDB). "Louis Armstrong." http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001918/ (July 28, 2004).
    Library of Congress. "2001 Jazz Film Series." http://www.loc.gov/rr/perform/concert/2000-2001/00jazzfilm.html (July 28, 2004).
    Solid!. "Louis Armstrong Filmography." http://www.parabrisas.com/d_armstrongl_f.html (July 27, 2004).
    Stratemann, Klaus. Louis Armstrong on the Screen. Copenhagen: JazzMedia, 1996.

  • Interviews
    These interviews provide some context in understanding the changing and exciting times in which Armstrong lived.

    Armstrong, Louis. "Berigan 'Can't Do No Wrong,' Says Armstrong." Down Beat. September 1, 1941, p. 7.
    _____________. "Pops Pops Top on Sloppy Bop." Metronome. October 1949, p. 18.
    _____________. "My Chops Was Beat--But I'm Dyin' To Swing Again. Down Beat. (July 24, 2004).
    _____________. "This Isn't Bunk; Bunk Taught Louis." . Down Beat. (July 24, 2004).
    _____________. "Daddy, How the Country Has Changed!" Ebony. May 1961, p. 81.
    Borneman, Ernest. "'Bop Will Kill Business Unless It Kills Itself First-- Louis Armstrong." Down Beat, April 7, 1948, p. 2.
    "Impossible Interview: Fritz Kressler vs. Louis Armstrong." Vanity Fair 40 (No. 6, Feb. 1936), p. 33.
    Morganstern, Dan. "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: An Interview with Louis Armstrong." Down Beat 32 (July 15, 1965), pp. 15-18.
    Tomkins, Les. "The Classic Interview: Louis Armstrong." Crescendo International 24 (No. 5, 1987), pp. 26-27.

  • Louis Armstrong Compositions and co-Compositions
    Armstrong, Louis. "Potato Head Blues." Louis Armstrong and His Hot Seven.
    _____________. "Weather Bird". Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five. OKeh 78 41454.
    _____________. "Cornet Chop Suey." rec. by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five. The Complete Hot Fives and Hot Seven Recordings. Columbia/Legacy CD 63527, 4 CDs.
    Armstrong, Louis and Lil Hardin Armstrong. "Struttin' With Some Barbecue." Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five. Columbia/Legacy 63527, 4 CDs.
    Armstrong, Louis and Lil Hardin Armstrong. "Tears." King Oliver's Jazz Band. OKeh 4000.
    Armstrong, Louis and Eddie Condon. "Knockin' a Jug." rec. by Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra. Decca 78 35663.
    Armstrong, Louis and Horace Gerlach. "Swing That Music." Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra. Decca 78 866.

  • Select Album Recordings on 78, LP and CD
    During his life, recordings were made in original 78 acetates and LP (Long-Play) vinyl sides. After his death, many (but not all) were re-issued on CD (compact disc) format.

    Armstrong, Louis. Louis Armstrong Plays W.C. Handy. Louis Armstrong and the All Stars. Columbia Records LP CL 591, 1954.
    ______________. Weather Bird. Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five. OKeh 78 41454.
    ______________. Satchmo Serenades. Louis Armstrong with Orchestra Directed by Sy Oliver. Decca LP DL 8211.
    ______________. The Complete Town Hall Concert. Louis Armstrong and the All Stars. RCA Records CD 66544 [2 CDs]. (Rec. 1947.)
    _____________. Satchmo: A Musical Autobiography. Verve Music Group CD 314543 2001. [3 CDs] (Rec. 1956-57).
    ______________. The Complete Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington Sessions. Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington and the All Stars. Roulette Records 24546 [2 CDs]. (Rec. 1961.)
    ______________. Louis Armstrong and His Friends. Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett and ensemble conducted by Oliver Nelson. Bluebird CD 63961-2 [1 CD]. (Rec. 1970.)
    ______________. What a Wonderful World. Louis Armstrong with various ensembles. GRP Records LP 656 [1 CD]. (Rec. 1968.)
    ______________. Mack the Knife. Louis Armstrong and the All Stars. Pablo Records LP 2310941. (Rec. 1968.)
    Burns, Ken. The Definitive Louis Armstrong. Louis Armstrong and the All Stars. Columbia/Sony CD CK 61440. (Released 2000.)

  • Radio Appearances, Performances and Interviews
    Radio performances played an important part in spreading Armstrong's music in (segregated) Jim Crow America. He was the first African American to host a nationally-broadcast radio program in 1937. During World War II he was often featured on "Voice of America" broadcasts.

    Lycos. "Louis Armstrong-Radio Days." (July 26, 2004).
    New Orleans Jazz Club. "Vintage Radio Broadcasts."
    Oct. 9, 1965: Part 1; * Oct.16, 1965: Part 2; * Oct. 23, 1965: Part 3. http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/audio/nojc.htm (July 25, 2004).
    Satchmo.net. "Heart Full of Rhythm" from The Fleishmann's Yeast Hour. http://www.satchmo.net/thearchives/audioclips.shtml (July 27, 2004). [Aired 1937.]
    Terkel, Studs. "Greatest Hits." June 24, 1962. http://www.studsterkel.org/ghits.php (July 25, 2004).
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, School of Information and Library Science. "Louis Armstrong Visits Chapel Hill." http://www.ils.unc.edu/afporch/audio/louie/louie.html (July 29, 2004). Hear a post-concert interview from May 8, 1954." (July 26, 2004). (3:39)

  • Television Appearances:
    Armstrong was one of the first African American artists to appear regularly on television. Most archived episodes can be located and screened at The Museum of Radio and Television in New York City. http://www.mtr.org/welcome.htm (July 27, 2004)

    The Big Show with Tallulah Bankhead, 1950; The Ed Sullivan Show, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959; Bing Crosby Oldsmobile Show, 1959; The Chevy Show: Swingin' at the Summit with Kay Starr, Harpo Marx, Tony Bennett and George Shearing; What's My Line?, 1964; The Dean Martin Show, 1965, 1966; Shindig, 1965; The Danny Kaye Show 1966; Tonight Show with Johnny Carson, 1967, 1970, 1971; Kraft Music Hall Show , 1967; Jackie Gleason Show, 1967; Operation Entertainment, 1967; The Dick Cavett Show, 1970, 1971; The David Frost Show, 1970, 1971; The Flip Wilson Show, 1970; The Pearl Bailey Show, 1971.

    MacDonald, J. Fred. Blacks and White TV: Afro-Americans in Television since 1948. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers, 1983.
    Murrow, Edward and Fred Friendly. Satchmo the Great CBS TV. 1957. (53 min.)

  • Videos and DVDs:
    These videos and DVDs may be available at your local library or video rental store.

    Akomfrah, John. The Wonderful World of Louis Armstrong . 50 min. Smoking Dogs Films, 1999, videocassette.
    Burns, Ken. Jazz - A Film by Ken Burns. Florentine Films and WETA, 20 hours/10 episodes, 2000, videocassette.
    Crohn, Burrill. Trumpet Kings. 72 min. Video Artists International, 1985, videocassette.
    Giddins, Gary with Kendrick Simmons. Satchmo: Louis Armstrong. 87 min. CBS Music Video Enterprises, 1989, videocassette.

  • Awards and Honors
    Armstrong has received more than 120 awards and plaques including some post-humous honors. Most are stored at the Louis Armstrong House and Archives.

    "'Beat' Readers Elect Louis to Hall of Fame." Down Beat 19 (Dec. 1952), p. 1.
    Louis Armstrong Centennial. "Louis Armstrong - Chart Entries, Awards, and Honors". http://www.satchmo.com/louisarmstrong/props4pops.html (July 28, 2004).
    Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. "Inductees." http://www.rockhall.com/hof/inductee.asp?id=59 (July 28, 2004).
    Satchmo.com. "Louis Armstrong Commemorative Stamp Issued in New Orleans." http://www.satchmo.com/louisarmstrong/satchmostamp.html (July 27, 2004).

  • Negative Appraisals:
    Throughout his career, many African American musicians (e.g. Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, Sammy Davis Jr. and Charles Mingus) and some jazz writers, criticized Armstrong's happy on-stage persona calling him an "Uncle Tom." Later, many came to a different understanding and begged forgiveness.

    Agee, James. Review of Cabin in the Sky in Partisan Review 1943.
    Wolff, Leon. "Bop, Louis Nowhere!" Down Beat. June 17, 1949.

  • Positive Appraisals
    Balliett, Whitney. "King Louis." The New Yorker, Aug. 8, 1970, p. 5.
    Belair, Felix. "United States Has Secret Sonic Weapon--Jazz." New York Times, Nov. 6, 1955, p. 1.
    Ellison, Ralph. "My Strength Comes From Louis Armstrong." In Living with Music: Ralph Ellison's jazz writings. New York: Modern Library, 2001.
    Keepnews, Orrin. "Changer Editor Also Blasts Wolff." Down Beat. July 15, 1949.
    New York Public Library. "Louis Armstrong Jazz Oral History Project." http://www.nypl.org/research/sc/scl/MULTIMED/JAZZHIST/jazzhist.html" (July 28, 2004).
    Schuller, Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Early Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
    Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery. "Louis Armstrong: A Cultural Legacy." http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/armstrong/ (July 29, 2004).
    John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie: "Louis Armstrong's station in the history of jazz is umimpeachable. If it weren't for him, there wouldn't be any of us."

  • Civil Rights
    Cripps, Thomas. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942. New York: Oxford University Press,1977.
    Higgins, Jim. "Playful Prodigy Moved Nation, Music Ahead." Journal Sentinel Press Online. http://www.jsonline.com/Enter/music/jun00/louis02063000.asp (July 28, 2004).
    Jones, Max. "Louis Blasts Jim Crow." Melody Maker 34 (Dec. 12, 1959), p. 11.
    Kaminsky, Max. "Louis Is Not an Uncle Tom." Melody Maker 32 (Oct. 12, 1957), p. 5.
    "Louis the First." Time 53 (No. 8) Feb. 21, 1949, pp. 52-58.
    Meckna, Michael. "Louis Armstrong Blasts Little Rock, Arkansas." In Perspectives on American Music Since 1950. Ed. by James R. Heintze. New York: Garland, 1998.

The Louis Armstrong House and Archives

"The mission of the Louis Armstrong House and Archives is to preserve and promote the cultural legacy of Louis Armstrong-- a founding father of jazz, an American icon, and one of the most recongizable people of the 20th century."
The House in Corona, Queens, opened to the public on October 15, 2003.

  • Description of the House
    Louis Armstrong House and Archives.. "The House." http://www.satchmo.net/thehouse (July 23, 2004).
    Kolbert, Elizabeth. "The Talk of the Town." The New Yorker. September 30, 2002.
    Hentoff, Nat. "Armstrong House, Alive and Well". Jazz Times. December 2003.

  • Collages
    In addition to creating music, Armstrong was often collecting images and creating beautiful collages for his home recorded tape covers.

    Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery. "Reel 163." http://portraits.npg.si.edu/img1/img1a/arm3.jpg (July 28, 2004).
    _______________________________. "Reel 164." http://portraits.npg.si.edu/img1/img1a/arm4.jpg (July 28, 2004).

  • Essays
    Armstrong, Louis. "Bunk Didn't Teach Me." The Record Changer. July-August 1950, p. 30.
    _______________. "Bop--That's Ju-Jitsu Music." Melody Maker, August 16, 1952, p. 9.
    _______________. "Why I Like Dark Women." Ebony, August 1954, p. 61.
    _______________. "Red Beans and Rice: One of the Only Birthmarks I Can Remember." Melody Maker, August 2, 1954, p. 9.
    _______________. "Scanning the History of Jazz." The Jazz Review, July 1960, p. 7.
    _______________. "Our Neighborhood." Chapter 17 in Louis Armstrong, in His Own Words: Selected Writings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 176-178.
    _______________. "Tight Like That Gage". Wolverine Antique Music Society. http://www.shellac.org/wams/wgage.html (July 24, 2004).

  • Favorite Foods
    Creole Gumbo, MayAnn's Jambalaya, Red Beans and Rice
    Louis Armstrong House & Archives. "RED BEANS AND RICE [Recipe]." http://www.satchmo.net/faq/beans.txt (June 28, 2004).

  • Home Recordings
    650 Reel-to-reel audiotapes were recorded at home.
    Satchmo.net: The Archives. "some excerpts from home-recorded tapes" http://www.satchmo.net/thearchives/audioclips.shtml (July 28, 2004).

  • Guilty Pleasures & Hobbies:
    Swiss Kriss laxatives; Smoking Marijuana (aka "Gage"); Good Creole cooking; Camel Cigarettes; Indexing Reel-to-reel tape collection; Making visual collages; Writing (typing) letters and telling funny stories.

  • Personal Letters
    Armstrong, Louis. Letter to Madeleine Berard, 25 Nov. 1946, Louis Armstrong House and Archives at Queens College, City University of New York.
    Armstrong, Louis. Letter to Joe Glaser, 2 Aug. 1955, Music Department, Library of Congress.
    ________________. Letter to Joe Glaser, 8 Sept. 1955, Music Department, Library of Congress.
    ________________. "Dear Friends Fans and Public". The Louis Armstrong Tribute Site. http://members.fortunecity.com/kybhr_enterprizes/quotes.html(July 25, 2004).
    ________________. "An Open Letter to Fans." Louis Armstrong, in His Own Words: Selected Writings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 179-188.

  • Photographs, Caricatures and Images
    More than 5,000 photographs (candids, portraits, publicity stills) and countless caricatures exist.

    Hinton, Milt and David G. Berger. Bass Lines: The Stories and Photographs of Milt Hinton. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.
    Gottlieb, William P. "Photographs from the Golden Age of Jazz." From Library of Congress, American Memory. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=wgpubs&fileName=wgpubs_043.db (July 28, 2004).
    _______________. "Aquarium." From Library of Congress, American Memory. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?gottlieb:3:./temp/~ammem_4C2j:: (July 28, 2004).
    _______________. "Carnegie Hall." From Library of Congress, American Memory. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?gottlieb:11:./temp/~ammem_4C2j:: (July 28, 2004).
    Leonard, Herman. "Jazz Memories: Music of the Jazz Masters." http://www.enjoythemusic.com/magazine/viewpoint/0302/herman.htm (July 25, 2004).
    Library of Congress. "American Memory: Louis Armstrong Search Results." William P. Gottlieb Collection of Louis Armstrong Portraits 1938-1948.
    Michael Ochs Archives. "Louis Armstrong." http://www.rhino.com/blackhistory/photo6.lasso (July 24, 2004).
    Time Magazine. "Cover Archive." Feb. 21, 1949. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/archive/covers/0,16641,1101490221,00.html (July 27, 2004).

  • Legacy:
    U.S. Postal Service Stamp 1995:
    Orgill, Roxane. "Satchmo's Stamp of Approval." Wall Street Journal, Sept. 27, 1995, p. A13.
    Alexios, T. "Armstrong Gets Stamp of Approval." Down Beat 63 (June 1995), p. 13.
    Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport. "Home Page." http://www.flymsy.com/ (July 28, 2004).
    New York Public Library. "Louis Armstrong Educational Foundation, Inc. "http://www.nypl.org/research/sc/scl/MULTIMED/JAZZHIST/funder.htm (July 27, 2004).
    New York City Public Schools. "Louis Armstrong Middle School: 2002-2003 Annual Report." http://www.nycenet.edu/daa/SchoolReports/03asr/477227.pdf (July 29, 2004).


    Books On the Life of Louis Armstrong

    These books may be available at your local library or through Interlibrary Loan.

  • Louis Armstrong Autobiographies:
    Armstrong, Louis. Louis Armstrong, in His Own Words: Selected Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    _____________. Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans. New York: Da Capo Press, 1986.
    _____________. Swing That Music. New York: Da Capo Pres, 1993. (orig. published 1936)

  • Biographies:
    Bergreen, Laurence. Louis Armstrong: An Extravagant Life. New York: Broadway Books, 1997.
    Berrett, Joshua. The Louis Armstrong companion: Eight Decades of Commentary. New York: Schirmer Books, 1999.
    Cogswell, Michael. Louis Armstrong: The Offstage Story of Satchmo. Portland: Collectors Press, 2003.
    Giddins, Gary. Satchmo: The Genius of Louis Armstrong. New York: Doubleday, 1988.
    Goffin, Robert. Horn of Plenty: The Story of Louis Armstrong. Trans. James Bezou. New York: Da Capo Press, 1977.
    Jones, Max and John Chilton. Louis: The Louis Armstrong Story. 1900-1971. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971.
    Meckna, Michael. Satchmo: The Louis Armstrong Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2004.
    Miller, Marc, ed. Louis Armstrong: A Cultural Legacy. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994.

    This project was created to fulfill the requirements of a Master's degree in Library and Information Studies, School of Informatics, University at Buffalo by David Kay for LIS 518 with guidance by Dr. Gail Staines and inspiration by Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong who lived and played "in the cause of happiness".

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